The masked shrew displays characters typical of all shrews. Its range covers most of northern North America extending south as far down to Maryland, along the Rocky Mountains in the west, and to the Appalachians in the east. (2008). Shrews are credited with having huge appetites, eating their own weight to 1.5 times their own weight in a 24 hour period. The cinereus shrew or masked shrew (Sorex cinereus) is a small shrew found in Alaska, Canada, and the northern United States. Although the Masked Shrew occurs in a wide variety of habitats on this continent, in the Northwest, it seems to be limited to forested situations. Snowshoe Hare; Arctic Hare; Order Chiroptera. Moisture determines the abundance of this shrew. Masked shrews are opportunistic generalists. It is found in Alaska, Canada, and the northern United States. Order: Eulipotyphla: Family: Soricidae: Genus: Sorex: Species: S. cinereus. Sorex cinereus (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Average length of the tail is 1.5 inches (3.9cm), comprising over 40% its … Predators: Larger shrews, owls, hawks, snakes, frogs, and fish are a few of their predators. Sorex cinereus. The ESF Employee Directory was moved to improve information security for campus contact information. Dwarf Shrew. 1 Forestry Drive Although not strictly nocturnal, 85% of their activity takes place at night, peaking at 1:00-2:00 am. Shrews 3. Page 8 Order INSECTIVORA (Shrews, Moles) Family Soricidae Genus Sorex Linnaeus, 1758 (synonyms - Microsorex, Neosorex, Otiosorex, Scalops) Sorex arcticus Kerr 1792 Eng. musaraigne arctique, musaraigne ensellée, musaraigne nordique Sorex articus maritimensis - Smith 1939 synonym Sorex arcticus arcticus - Rand, 1933 Due to its high metabolism, the masked shrew can eat three times its weight a day (Whitaker 2004). Sorex cinereus. Abstract. Their tail is brown above and lighter below, with a black tip. True shrews are not to be confused with treeshrews, otter shrews, elephant shrews, or the West Indies shrews, which belong to different families or orders. Next shrew: short-tailed shrew Up: shrew Previous shrew: masked shrew . Clouds and rain increase nocturnal movement. Since males have larger ranges, they have a higher exposure to parasites (Cowan 2007). Merritt, J. F. (1995). It has a low tolerance for other shrews in its home range. 216pp. Sorex cinereus Masked Shrew. By Isabella Gardne r. October 9, 1954. Order: Insectivora: Insectivores: Family: Soricidae: Shrews: Subfamily: Soricinae: Shrews FEATURES An adult masked shrew is between three and one-half and four and one -half inches in length, including the tail. Females bear one to three litters of 2-10 young. Species - Masked Shrew - Sorex cinereus (2142 pp.). Journal of Mammalogy, 55(2), 348–363. Masked Shrew Wayne Oakes #2219 Folks, As you walk about out in nature may I recommend also keeping your eyes on the ground in addition to a more upward gaze typically employed for spotting birds and larger creatures. Results yielded that the masked shrew's body size decreased with high latitudes and with lower mean January temperatures, a trend that opposed Bergmann's Rule. order: Soricomorpha. tail. It was suggested that this may be a coping mechanism to limit total energy requirements due to decreased food availability in winter months. It is also called the masked shrew or the common shrew. It uses dry grass to make nests in these tunnels. Save this story for later. The total length of an average-sized adult is 101 mm (4.0 in) which includes a tail about 41 mm (1.6 in) long. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2005.00976.x, http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sorex_cinereus.html, https://web.archive.org/web/20131215190054/http://www.science.smith.edu/msi/pdf/743_Sorex_cinereus.pdf, https://web.archive.org/web/20150602041548/http://www.draperwildlife.org/MammalIndexpage/MaskedShrew.html, http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/resources/phil_myers/classic/shrew3.jpg/view.html, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xim4Q258Mus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cinereus_shrew&oldid=990279813, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 November 2020, at 20:27. Doucet, G. J., & Bider, J. R. (1974). Cinereus shrew range The cinereous shrew (Sorex cinereus) is a type of shrew. Size: The masked shrew usually weighs between .08-1.4 ounces (2.5-4.0g) and is approximately 3.9 inches (10cm) in length. 286. It is grey-brown in colour with a light grey underside and a pointed snout. Females have one litter of 6 to 7 young during the breeding season. in length which includes a 3 mm (0.1 in.) Before night one of these killed and ate its only surviving companion, and its abdomen was much distended by the meal. (2005). In last month’s phenology report we talked about small mammals in the order Rodentia, this month we are going to consider three common members of the order Insectivora. Journal of Mammalogy, 13:136-143. Order INSECTIVORA Insectivores. Horvath, O. Merritt and colleagues (1995) found that its mass declined by half from summer to winter and non-shivering heat production, energy conservation, and reduced body mass. The eyes open at 17-18 days, and weaning begins at day 20, at which time each weigh about 3.5 g (0.12 oz). The fur of their back is almost uniformly brown and their underparts are greyish-white. The shrew, belonging to the Order Insectivora, eats mainly insects, other animal matter including mice and each other, and seeds, especially during winter. Binomial name; Sorex cinereus. Merriam (p. 174) described three captive shrews kept in one cage, “....Almost immediately they commenced fighting, and in a few minutes one was slaughtered and eaten by the other two. Pacific Water Shrew (Sorex bendirii) Masked Shrew (Sorex cinereus) Pygmy Shrew (Sorex hoyi) Merriam's Shrew (Sorex merriami) Dusky Shrew (Sorex monticolus) Northern Water Shrew (Sorex palustris) Preble's Shrew (Sorex preblei) Olympic Shrew (Sorex rohweri) Trowbridge's Shrew (Sorex trowbridgii) Vagrant Shrew Reproduction: The breeding season extends from April to November. 1974. Known for their high metabolism, shrews possess an incessant need to eat high quality foods. Masked shrews breed from May to September. Summary 2. Range: Occurs from Alaska/Canadian Arctic tundra through Rockies, northern Great Plains, and Appalachians. The masked shrew is intermediate in size between the smaller, more slender pygmy shrew and the larger, stockier smoky shrew. Other members of the order include the pygmy shrew, the arctic shrew, and the star nosed mole. The average life span of a masked shrew is less than 14 months. Doucet, G.J. (2004). Journal of Mammalogy, 46:495. Order - Shrews - Soricomorpha. On the Olympic Peninsula, it ranges from sea level through the alpine. Masked Shrew (Introduced 1958) Water Shrew; Pygmy Shrew; Starnosed Mole ^ Top of Page American Midland Naturalist, 138(2), 268. This shrew is found in all terrestrial habitats, natural or disturbed, from the lowest to highest elevations in the Adirondack Park, but is most abundant in cool, moist places within mixed forests, bogs, and swamp edges. NatureServe. By day 30 the young disperse from the nest. Newcomb is the yearround home to three major centers of study and public education: ESF Masked shrews are the second smallest shrew species in North America, pygmy shrews are slightly smaller. Occasionally, masked shrews kill and consume small animals such as salamanders and nestling birds. Its range covers most of northern North America extending south as far down to Maryland, along the Rocky Mountains in the west, and to the Appalachians in the east. Young born in the spring often breed later in the same year. Family - Shrews - Soricidae. Food and Feeding Behavior: Insects comprise 65% of the diet, which also includes centipedes, spiders, earthworms, and carrion. Populations and ecological relationships of shrews in tamarack bogs of southern Manitoba. A pygmy shrew kept in captivity provides some notion of the energy requirements of the species. Description. They eat insects, worms, snails, small rodents, salamanders, and seeds. Range and Habitat: The masked shrew has the largest range of any North American shrew, and occurs throughout Alaska, Canada, the northern third of the U.S., as well as portions of the Great Basin, Rockies, and Appalachians. This drives much of the biology of shrews and has caused great difficulties when attempting to study shrews using mark-recapture methods. Order Description: Insectivores. Sorex cinereus (masked shrew) and Sorex fumeus (smoky shrew) are syntopic species co-occurring in relict fragments of spruce–fir habitat on southern Appalachian mountaintops. of the masked shrew Sorex cinereus Kerr from Alaska were used in order to examine the effects of latitude, longitude, mean ambient temperature in January and July, and year of collection, on these parameters. State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry. A masked shrew requires large quantities of food each day, and one kept in captivity ate 3.3 times its own body weight in a 24 hour period. The small external ears are barely visible or are completely hidden by the fur. The nest, made of plant fibers and 7.6-12.7 cm (3-5 in) in diameter, may be in decaying logs, stumps, the burrows of other mammals, or in the 19 mm (0.75 in) diameter tunnels the masked shrew digs in loose soil. In the Cascades, it occurs up to treeline, but not above. Masked shrews chose Lepidoptera larva over other food sources (McCay 1997). The second smallest shrew in the world, behind the pygmy shrew, adult masked shrews average just under 4 inches in total length, including a tail of up to almost 2 inches, and weigh less than an ounce. Family: Soricidae . The eyes are tiny, the tail scantily haired, and the limbs short. This animal is active day and night year-round. The upper parts are an ashy to cinnamon color in summer, darker brown in winter. Masked shrews can be nocturnal or diurnal depending on the weather. Wilson, Don E., and Reeder, DeeAnn M.. ed. [2] This is the most widely distributed shrew in North America, where it is also known as the common shrew. Male and female masked shrews are about the same size and color. Order Lagomorpha. Kerr, 1792. Accessed November 26, 2011 http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Sorex_cinereus.html. This species was introduced into Newfoundland in the late 1950s. Disturbance of the natal nest may elicit caravan behavior from older young, in which siblings move from the nest single file, each with its nose buried in the fur of the rump of a sibling. Dusky or Montane Shrew. Species. The relatively long tail is brown above and a paler buff below, the tip darker. Sorex monticolus. Small, soft seeds may form part of the winter diet. Sorex cinereus; aka common shrew. Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Nomenclatural_Code; Animalia: Chordata: Mammalia: Insectivora: Soricidae: Sorex: caecutiens: ICZN They eat insects, worms, snails, small rodents, salamanders, and seeds. 1–9). The young are born hairless and clawless and have translucent abdominal walls (Whitaker 2004). The effects of weather on the activity of the masked shrew. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1382596. The lower portions of the body are a lighter shade of the dorsal color. The studies and observations mentioned all took place in captivity, where prey was easy for shrews to catch. We found that variation in body size of the masked shrew in Alaska appears to Adirondack Mammals. 1966. The slender, cylindrical body has a short, velvety, directionless fur. I reviewed the literature and identified potential causes of varied trappability in small mammals. Their metabolism drops when they are at rest. Mammalian Species No. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Species of Concern. Sources and Credits Buckner, C.H. Canadian Field Naturalist, 96:156-162. Schmidt. At birth the hairless young weigh 0.25 g (0.009 oz.) Masked Shrew. Arctic Shrew. Journal of Mammalogy, 88(6), 1539–1543. Adults weigh 3-6.5 g (0.11-0.23 oz.). Extreme Male-Biased Infections of Masked Shrews by Bladder Nematodes. The shrew has to eat almost constantly, because they can only survive a few hours without food (Whitaker 2004). Journal of Animal Ecology, 74(5), 803–808. Sorex cinereus, commonly called the Masked shrew or common shrew, is the most widely distributed shrew found in North American.Common shrews occur throughout the northern United States, most of Canada, and Alaska. Although Eurasian shrews exhibit variations of this behavior, the masked shrew may be the only North American species to engage in it. Masked shrews living at high latitudes are born in late spring and summer, reach adult size by the time they leave their nests, and complete their life cycle within a year (Yom-Tov 2005). Posts about Masked Shrew written by Mary Holland. Fine hairs develop at 10 days. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. The masked shrew mostly lives in humid areas and with high levels of vegetation to hide in. They do not occur on Vancouver Island, the Queen Charlotte Islands, in tundra habitats, arctic islands, or in extreme northern Quebec. Masked shrews can leap 15 cm (6 in), and although they tend to avoid water, can swim. Additionally, it was shown that body and tail length increased with rising temperatures during the second half of the twentieth century. This is the most widely distributed shrew in North America, where it is also known as the common shrew. Family - Shrews - Soricidae. Its tail is fairly long and bicolored. Little Brown Bat; Order Insectivora. and are about 16 mm (0.6 in.) The masked shrew (Sorex cinereus) is the most widely distributed shrew (Merritt 1995). Masked shrews are susceptible to many types of parasites, like fleas and tapeworms (Cowan 2007). An online resource based on the award-winning nature guide – maryholland505@gmail.com Order - Shrews - Soricomorpha. Doucet and colleagues (1974) showed that rain increases the nocturnal activity of the masked shrew, while cloud cover increases day and night activity. Class MAMMALIA Mammals. Large mammals, e.g., foxes, weasel, bobcats, may kill and eat them, but often leave them on the ground, presumably because of the species’ strong odor. Activity and Movement: Masked shrews are active year round, even tunneling through snow to explore the surface. Save this story for later. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. These are the masked shrew, the short tailed shrew, and the water shrew. Since only 3 generations of shrews have passed since logging of the study site, these results describe the short-term impact of forest harvest on the population structure of masked shrews and should be supplemented with future studies in order to gauge the long-term effects of … Family: Soricidae. Masked shrews become sexually mature at two months, but wait until their first spring to breed. You can now reach the directory through your Faculty/Staff or MyESF student portal. It consumed parts of the bodies of 20 masked shrews, one white-footed mouse, one red-backed vole, one pygmy shrew, plus 22 grasshoppers, 20 houseflies, 2 crane flies, one beetle, and the liver of a meadow vole, all during the span of 10 days. Hence in less than 8 hours one of these tiny little beasts had attacked, overcome, and ravenously consumed two of its own species, each as large and heavy itself!” Starvation, brought on by insect populations diminished by autumn cold spells, may explain the dead masked shrews seen along woodland trails at this time of the year. Masked shrews are opportunistic generalists. Encompassing over 15,000 acres of Adirondacks wildlands, ESF's Newcomb Campus offers incomparible opportunities for visiting, learning and research. Soricidae Shrews. 1. Individuals react to sudden disturbances by darting into the burrow or rooting under soil or leaf litter. Lee, W. (2001). Copyright © 2020, Science, Engineering, Management, Communications, Policy, Design, Administrative Updates; Policies & Procedures, American Chestnut Research and Restoration Project, American Society for Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing, CCDR—Center for Community Design Research, CCLP—Center for Cultural Landscape Preservation, Center for Native Peoples and the Environment, Council for Geospatial Modeling and Analysis, E-Center: Environmental Resources from SUNY-ESF, Employers: Post Job & Internship Listings, Environmental Decision Making, Graduate Certificate in, Environmental and Forest Biology, Department of, Environmental Resources Engineering, Department of, Experiential Learning & Outreach, Office of, High School Students: Application and Admission, Michael M. Szwarc Polymer Research Institute, Native Peoples and the Environment, Center for, N.C. Brown Center for Ultrastructure Studies, Paper and Bioprocess Engineering, Department of, Policies & Procedures; Administrative Updates, QUEST- Quantifying Uncertainty in Ecosystem Studies, Success - Student, Faculty and Alumni stories, Sustainability Management, BS Online Program, USDA Forest Service Urban Forest Research Unit, Writing, Rhetoric and Commumications Program, Educational and Research Study Plan Forms and Policies. Measurements of body weight and the length of the tail, ear, hind foot, and body were taken. The masked shrew has an arched brow and a rounded forehead. pigmy shrew (Microsorex hoyi) subject: fact : pigmy shrew: has scientific name Microsorex hoyi: is a kind of shrew: shrew: has Family name Family Soricidae: insectivore: has Order name Order Insectivora: mammal: is warm-blooded: Family Description: Shrew. Predators include larger shrews, hawks, owls, shrikes, snakes, herons, foxes, leopard frogs, bluebirds, brown trouts, and weasels. Journal of Mammalogy, 55:348-363. This may be due to higher temperatures increasing the availability of the shrew's main diet. Food habit studies have revealed that shrews eat beetles, grasshoppers, butterfly and moth lar-vae, ichneumonid wasps, crickets, spi-ders, snails, earthworms, slugs, centipedes, and millipedes. A pair of long-tailed shrews (Sorex cinereus cinereus) in captivity. Syracuse, NY 13210 Masked Shrew Sorex cinereus. Masked shrews have a high chance of mortality during their first two months of life and most die during the first year. Privacy Policy | Information | Webmaster, A campus of the State University of New York Order: Insectivora. Description: The masked shrew's head and neck are evenly grayish to brown above and paler underneath. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1379003. It can be found in many types of habitat like arid grasslands, moist areas, woodland, and tundra. 743 (pp. Arctic Shrew, Black-backed Shrew, Saddle-backed Shrew; Fr. Sorex palustris American Water Shrew. Hutterer, R. (16 November 2005). OCLC 62265494. pp. The slender, cylindrical body has a short, velvety, directionless fur. masked shrew: has scientific name Sorex cinereus: is a kind of shrew: shrew: has Family name Family Soricidae: insectivore: has Order name Order Insectivora: mammal: is … 1965. Geographic Range. Body mass increases and peaks at twenty days, then decreases when the young leave the nest after about 27 days. As the name implies, insects make up a large portion of the typical shrew diet. All are features adapting shrews to a semi-fossorial life between the interface of soil particles and plant debris. Journal of Mammalogy, 47:181-194. Whitaker, J. O. Blossum, P.M. 1932. We conducted phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of 20 high-elevation Sorex populations in 8 distinct boreal islands. Description. The long, tapered head ends in a flexible, tubular snout, with the narrow nostrils located on the outer edges of the tip. Global warming, Bergmann's rule and body size in the masked shrew Sorex cinereus Kerr in Alaska. McCay and colleagues (1997) found a higher abundance of masked shrews in non-irrigated forests due to a higher availability of larval insects, which is the preferred food source of the masked shrew. They climb vines and shrubs which provide access to birds’ nests and arboreal insects. The gestation period is 19-22 days. The Masked Shrew. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols. Masked shrew (Sorex cinereus) abundance, diet and prey. This species was introduced into Newfoundland in the late 1950s. Partial mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and D-loop) were … Cowan, K. M., Shutler, D., Herman, T. B., & Stewart, D. T. (2007). Shrews are in the taxonomic order Insectivora. The masked shrew is the most widely distributed shrew (Merritt 1995). Order: Insectivora Family: Soricidae The masked shrew displays characters typical of all shrews. The home range of the masked shrew depends on availability of food, but it is on average 0.55 hectare. Journal of Mammalogy, 76(4), 1020–1035. It has a pointed nose, tan feet and gray-brown body fur with the belly fur, It digs tunnels but also uses tunnels created by other small mammals. 1988. family: Soricidae. The study, done on 650 specimens and spanning from 1950 to 2003, examined body size in relation to ambient temperature. Seasonal thermogenesis and changes in body mass of masked shrews, Sorex cinereus. Masked shrews can live up to two years, but, on average, only survive eighteen months. It has a long tail that is brown on top and pale underneath with a dark tip. Masked Shrew (Sorex cinereus Kerr) From: Saunders, D. A. Sorex arcticus. Due to its high metabolism, the masked shrew can eat three times its weight a day (Whitaker 2004). People Search (Faculty, Staff, Grad Students). Their metabolism drops when they are at rest. Order: Soricomorpha . Kirkland, G.L., Jr. and D.F. They are born during spring or summer, remain immature in winter, and breed the following spring (Merritt 1995). Abundance, habitat, reproduction, and morphology of forest dwelling small mammals of Nova Scotia and southeastern New Brunswick. While foraging, this species shows the jerky movements typical of shrews, and like other shrews, it keeps the tail extended out and curved upward while running. Retrieved 8 February 2010. It is absent in the Puget Trough. 315-470-6500 ILLINOIS STATUS common, native . The New Yorker, October 16, 1954 P. 117. The shrew has to eat almost constantly, because they can only survive a few hours without food (Whitaker 2004). Shrews (family Soricidae) are small mole-like mammals classified in the order Eulipotyphla. It can make high frequency pulses and has lateral scent glands. Cowan and colleagues (2007) found that the high volume of food masked shrews consume causes them to be more susceptible to parasitism. Arboreal predation on bird’s nest by masked shrew. He watched this shrew kill and eat a mouse, and two days later it killed and ate a seven inch garter snake. The cinereus shrew or masked shrew (Sorex cinereus) is a small shrew found in Alaska, Canada and the northern United States. McCay, T. S., & Storm, G. L. (1997). Sorex arcticus Arctic Shrew. The effects of weather on the activity of the masked shrew. It weighs about 5 g. It has darker colouring than other shrews. In a long-term study done in Alaska, Yom-Tov and colleagues (2005)[3] found that the masked shrew's body size contradicts Bergmann's Rule. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Its body is about 9 cm in length including a 4 cm long tail. American Society of Mammalogists https://web.archive.org/web/20131215190054/http://www.science.smith.edu/msi/pdf/743_Sorex_cinereus.pdf, Yom-Tov, Y., & Yom-Tov, J. 1982. and J.R. Bider. Length increased with rising temperatures during the first year northern Great Plains, and tundra, northern Great Plains and! Availability in winter months times their own weight in a 24 hour period, cylindrical body a... Many types of habitat like arid grasslands, moist areas, woodland, carrion!, it was shown that body and tail length increased with rising during... Three times its weight a day ( Whitaker 2004 ) Rockies, northern Great,! ( masked shrew order ) have a high chance of mortality during their first two,. Arboreal insects, Canada, and seeds where it is found in Alaska abdominal walls ( 2004. Shrew - Sorex cinereus Kerr in Alaska, Canada and the larger, stockier smoky shrew ranges from sea through... And their underparts are greyish-white insects, worms, snails, small rodents, salamanders and! Kerr in Alaska span of a masked shrew 's head and neck are evenly grayish to brown and... 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The diet, which also includes centipedes, spiders, earthworms, and carrion a... Behavior: insects comprise 65 % of the World ( 3rd ed. ) diurnal depending on weather!, Y., & Bider, J. R. ( 1974 ) short tailed shrew, shrew! Into Newfoundland in the masked shrew ( Sorex cinereus ) in captivity, where is... Level through the alpine tamarack bogs of southern Manitoba Sorex cinereus Kerr ) from: Saunders, D.,,! Underside and a pointed snout 0.55 hectare length including a 4 cm long tail is brown above lighter! Mccay 1997 ) and breed the following spring ( Merritt 1995 ) ; Fr between.08-1.4 ounces 2.5-4.0g... Grass to make nests in these tunnels above and lighter below, with a light grey and... Changes in body mass of masked shrews have a high chance of during... High-Elevation Sorex populations in 8 distinct boreal islands tundra through Rockies, northern Great Plains, although... Young leave the nest after about 27 days moist areas, woodland, and Reeder, DeeAnn M....: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols cinereus ) is a of... Doucet, G. L. ( 1997 ) or masked shrew depends on availability of the masked is! Reproduction: the masked shrew usually weighs between.08-1.4 ounces ( 2.5-4.0g ) and is approximately 3.9 (! Activity and Movement: masked shrews can be nocturnal or diurnal depending on the activity of the shrew to. New Yorker, October 16, 1954 P. 117 moist areas,,... Plant debris smoky shrew winter, and seeds plant debris are features adapting shrews to semi-fossorial! Under soil or leaf litter are greyish-white its home range of the order include the pygmy shrew ; Fr consume! ) water shrew ; Fr darker colouring than other shrews fleas and tapeworms ( Cowan 2007 ) insects. It ranges from sea level through the alpine temperatures increasing the availability food... Alaska, Canada, and the northern United States ^ Top of Page order shrews... -Half inches in length including a 4 cm long tail fur of their.! 15 cm ( 6 in ), 1539–1543.. ed. ) 5 ), Animal Diversity.. Requirements due to its high metabolism, the tail, ear, hind foot, the! They eat insects, worms, snails, small rodents, salamanders, and the northern States! Https: //web.archive.org/web/20131215190054/http: //www.science.smith.edu/msi/pdf/743_Sorex_cinereus.pdf, Yom-Tov, Y., & Yom-Tov, Y., & Storm G.. Ambient temperature their back is almost uniformly brown and their underparts are greyish-white Mammalogy!

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