In addition, the figures, diagrams, and different drawings are colored; points that need due emphasis like definitions that represent minimum learning competencies, and activities are in blue background box. 45 pages, paperback booklet. Harar Printing Press. The texts in some figures, diagrams, and other drawings were found to be not clearly seen. (2011b.). McKeachie in National Academy of Sciences (1997) indicated that, for many people, visual processing (i.e., reading) is faster than auditory processing (i.e., listening to lectures), making textbooks a very effective resource. However, the other aspects of the textbooks were found to have limitations. These aspects of the textbooks emphasized on memorization of facts, explanations, principles; the activities had immediate answers in the textbooks; figures and diagrams concentrated mainly for illustrative purpose; review questions and problems demanded simple memory and mere mathematical calculations based on previous learning of formulas; summaries reflected main points in the text narratives and limited to raise new questions and up-to-date scientific researches. DOI: 10.12691/education-2-1-8, Received December 13, 2013; Revised January 03, 2014; Accepted January 25, 2014. We consider Conceptual Integrated Science Explorations to be a two year sequence. The learning objectives stated in the textbooks and corresponding units do not explicitly show the behavioral objectives students achieve in each grade level. Keywords: constructivism, quantitative analysis of textbook, student-centered, textbook, American Journal of Educational Research, 2014 2 (1), b= summaries that raise new questions, the answers to which are not available in the text or are subjects of current research in science. The purpose of this paper was to analyze grade 7 and 8 physics student textbooks for Ethiopian schools. •Â Â Even if there were differences in the quantity and quality of the six categories of the textbooks across the different units, every unit consisted of learning objectives, activities, text narratives, figures and diagrams, review questions and problems, and unit summaries. The grade 7 physics textbook for Ethiopian schools consisted of 8 units: Physics and Measurement, Motion, Force and Newtonâs laws of Motion, Work, Energy, & Power, Simple Machines, Temperature & Heat, Sound, and Electricity & Magnetism. The index of student involvement for summaries at the end of units was found to be 0.45 and 0.4 for grade 7 and grade 8 textbooks, respectively. Unpublished. Khine, M. S. (2008). Citation-(RIS Retrieved on Monday, December 02, 2013 from http://www.recsam.edu.my/cosmed/cosmed05/AbstractsFullPapers2005/files%5Csubtheme1%5CMAHNAB.pdf, Dalim, S.F.and Mubarrak, M. (2013). MoE. One can easily judge looking at the sample learning objectives taken from both textbooks as shown below. In learning physics, students gain scientific knowledge, skills, and attitudes which enable them realize that problems can be solved. Measurement is very important in our life; from amount of sugar we add to a cup of tea to the clothes we wear. Conceptual Framework of This Study: Quantitative Analysis of Textbooks. Badminton Grade 7 Physical Education 1. According to Robert (1962), textbooks should have several purposeful activities that require students to work together. The Education and Trainning Policy and Its Implimentation. The opinions from the open-ended questionnaires were analyzed qualitatively. Besides, even if each unit of the textbooks had review exercises and problems, the emphasis was found to be on mere mathematical calculations based on prior learned formula memorizations. This means the textbooks are authoritarian, not challenging students for critical thinking, and give due emphasis for memorizing of facts and definitions. The following formula is used for student involvement of activities: Where a=number of pages that have activities and b=total number of pages. Textbooks in New South Wales Secondary Schools. The aim of badminton is to hit the shuttle with your racket so that it passes over the net and lands inside your opponent’s half of the court. Introduction to Physics Power Point 49,477 views. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Education (2009a) pointed out that the learning of physics enables students/learners to understand the physical world, to carryout observations and experiments related with physical events and phenomena, enhance interest in nature. Play begins from the right half court. Online video/YouTube, 6th - High School | Online/YouTube video, 2nd - 8th | The study has tried to analyze the six categories (learning objectives, text narratives, activities, figures and diagrams, review questions and problems, and unit summaries) of the grade 7 and 8 physics textbooks for Ethiopian schools by employing mainly content analysis technique. IXL brings 7th grade science to life! In addition, the figures, diagrams, other drawings, and points that demand emphasis were put in attractive colors that grasp students for reading. Moreover, MoE (2002) and TGE (1994) declared the demand of the new education and training policy directions to make improvements and revisions in textbooks to meet national and international standards. Physics is one of the natural science subjects given as a linear subject starting from grade 7 to 12 in Ethiopian schools. According to scholars in the area activities should provide an opportunity to involve students in discussions, presentations, collecting data, role plays, linking to websites, and computer simulations (Dalim and Mubarrak, 2013). Thus, every aspect of the textbooks such as learning objectives, text narratives, figures and diagrams, activities, review questions and problems, and unit summaries should be organized in order to facilitate student-centered approach and active engagement of students in the learning process. Selecting an appropriate technique of analyzing textbooks is at our disposal. Robert, A. Ministry of Education. Having such great role, the inadequate and inconsistent scientific knowledge presented and inappropriate preparation in physics textbooks can negatively affect studentsâ learning and understanding. These aspects of the textbook can be arranged into six categories: Learning objectives, Text narratives, Activities, Figures and Diagrams, Unit summaries, and Exercises at the end of units. The grade 8 physics textbook do not have enough activities that help students do as they are in the process of learning but the grade 7 physics textbook grasps good deal of activities to involve students actively during the learning process. Format), Citation-(EndNote Quantitative analysis techniques were employed and index values for studentsâ involvement were calculated. A thorough investigation of the review questions and problems in the two textbooks revealed that this slightly good index of student involvement is achieved not because the questions require studentsâ apply what they have learned to new situations. Different techniques could be employed to analyze textbooks. Analysis of science textbooks for instructional effectiveness. Master Class 7 Science And Be Successful in exams. This implies that all the 8 units in grade 7 physics textbook and the 6 units in grade 8 physics textbook have learning objectives. The calculated index of student involvement for figures and diagrams in the textbooks gives 0.54 and 0.68 for grade 7 and 8 physics textbooks, respectively. Dubai: Al Ghurair Printing and Publishing House LLC. Physics For Grade7physics. Accordingly, conclusions were drawn and recommendations for further improvements and revisions were forwarded. The index of student involvement for activities in the textbooks gives 0.70 and 0.37 for grade 7 and 8 physics textbooks, respectively. Washington, D. C: National Academy Press. Relatively speaking, the grade 8 physics textbook is better in including figures and diagrams to involve students in performing some activities and predict relationships. What grade levels would you like to receive learning resources for? Education statistics annual abstract. This is because students are engaged in knowledge building; there are other dimensions also that they come up with in addition to knowledge. As for text narratives, the index value for studentsâ involvement for grade 7 and grade 8 textbooks is 0.2 and 0.3, respectively. Furthermore, studying physics can have the following advantages: helps to understand the working principles of many of our daily utensils and tools, helps to discover nature and how it works, helps to apply the knowledge of physics to other sciences and disciplines, and helps to solve practical and real-life problems (MoE, 2011a). Physics is the study of the world around… Learn about measurement of mass, weight and their difference. After taking representative samples for each aspect from each textbook under investigation, the index of student involvement was calculated and then the value is summarized in Table 2 below. The extent to which the chemistry textbook of grade 11 is appropriate for learner-centered approach. Each aspect of the textbooks were rated depending whether it engages students for active learning or not. We’ll start by looking at motion itself. According to Dalim and Mubarrak (2013), a textbook is considered as good if it is more student-centered, promoting self-directed learning, allowing students to learn by themselves at their own pace and have activities for students to enhance the mastery of the topic. •Â Â Text narratives were not organized in the demand of learnersâ behavior. Physics is defined as the study of the nature of matter, energy, and their interactions. Content analysis is one of the research methods. (n.d). In this paper, quantitative analysis of different aspects of grade 7 and 8 physics textbooks were investigated. 10 High School Physics and Physical Science Text Books Here are 10 excellent and well written high school Physics and Physical Science text books that teach and demonstrate many topics and areas. Based on the analysis made and the results obtained, the following conclusions were made:-. Education and Training Policy. (See samples). Redish, E.F. (2002). Research indicated that traditional problems that lead to an immediate mathematical answer do not foster scientific thinking rather productive questions should be included that require students to be engaged both physically and mentally in investigating and manipulating elements in their environment (Wilson, 2008). In short, the emphasis seemed on science as a product not a process. Here, you can browse videos, articles, and exercises by topic. Physics is the study of matter, motion, energy, and force. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Education has undertaken science and mathematics subjects the most prioritized so that strategies for improving science and mathematics education has been prepared (MoE, 2009b). Even if textbooks are the most useful means of communicating knowledge and they are the first and basic input materials in the Ethiopian schools (ANRSEB, 2001), there are no enough number of review questions and problems in some of the units of the textbooks under consideration. 3. Many scholars indicated that textbooks are being used as a major source of information in teaching a particular subject, the quality and accuracy of the content is crucial for their educational effectiveness (Dalim and Mubarrak, 2013; Khine, 2008). The text narratives had limitations in helping students learn and do science. Conceptual Physics (12th Edition) Hewitt, Paul G. Publisher Addison-Wesley ISBN 978-0-32190-910-7. Share; Like; Download ... Joyce Gridley. Unpublished. The guideline for index values interpretation is given in Table 1 below. Ministry of Education. Science teaching reconsidered: A handbook. Chemistry Teaching in Secondary Schools (Ched 391). Dubai: Al Ghurair Printing and Publishing House LLC. Retrieved on Wednesday, May 14, 2008 from http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/science/eric/eric-5.htm. In Ethiopian context where there are no enough curriculum materials, textbooks are taken to be the basic sources of ideas and information. It is defined as a science of observation and measurement that enables us to understand the world at large and the laws of nature. In order to assure whether textbooks meet the necessary requirements or whether they engage students for learning or whether they are good for active learning, they must be evaluated. Based on the index value interpretation guideline, the values imply that the summaries investigated were repetitions of the conclusions of the unit and summarizes the same idea from the texts. 18th Year Teaching ; I feel so fortunate to be a Science Teacher it is my passion and I hope to share this enthusiasm with your child. Object of the Game Badminton 2. Laws, P., and Horsley, M. (2006). However, these figures and diagrams were found to be mostly for illustrative purpose that had limitations in helping students to analyze data and learn new situations. The calculation of index value for student involvement gives different values for different aspects of the textbooks. Points i and j have no contribution to quality and usefulness of textbooks (Dalim and Mubarrak, 2013; Mergo, 2012; Engida, 2005). It is because some questions require students to solve a problem. Addis Ababa University. In addition, open-ended questionnaires were prepared, distributed, and collected from teachers and students to triangulate the data obtained from the six sample aspects of the textbooks. Physics and chemistry in the first year (Grade 7 or 8), biology, earth science, and astronomy in the second year (Grade 8 or 9). We have developed Homeschool Planet planners accommodating both the 2 year and 1 year sequences. A textbook, an educational input, can bring a difference in educational equity and quality (Laws and Horsley, 2006) and serves as a catalyst to discussion or instruction, serve as references for students, provide background information, or supply examples and applications of key ideas in science (Haury and Rillero, 1994). ICSE Grade 7; Physics; Force and Motion . Wilson, R. (2008).Promoting the Development of Scientific Thinking. Textbooks as curriculum materials play very important role in serving as supplementary materials by incorporating explanation of terms and the findings of many different researches. An index called index of students involvement was calculated from ratings of the different aspects of the textbook and the interpretation was made based on the guideline given in Table 1 above. Mechanics The physical body of a seventh grader is rapidly changing, and they are developing a new relationship with the world and the forces of nature. We have 11 learning resources listed for 7th Grade Physics, including educational YouTube & Online Videos, Worksheets & Printables, Online Classes, Windows Software, and iPhone & iPad Apps, from providers including HippoCampus.org, University of Virginia, Arduino Education, and Khan Academy. The game of badminton consists of two to four players (singles or doubles). I am a parent as well with 2 children and three grandchildren. This in turn has led to a change in the role of science and mathematics textbooks. Summaries are very important in providing students with new questions that lead for further learning after completing a unit or acquitting students with current issues and researches in science and technology. Besides, the activities presented in the textbooks demanded students to get immediate answers from textbooks. In addition, students and teachers reported that texts in the figures and diagrams do not have visible font, some figures and diagrams are not visible and clear, and there are repeated figure and diagram names. UNESCO. Perspectives of hands-on science teaching. According to Romey (1968), textbooks should have a balance in terms of facts, definitions, explanations, and conclusions so that they can promote critical thinking skills and be able to extract their own knowledge. Sydney: The University of Sydney. The main method of the research employed was content analysis. pp 44-49. The Arduino Education Science Kit Physics Lab provides middle schoolers (ages 11 to 14) with a hands-on experience, enabling them to explore forces, motion, and conductivity with their classmates.... Grades 6-8 Physical Science: Physics Take your children on a hands-on exploration of motion, forces, energy and more with this multisensory study of physics! In analyzing science textbooks, different scholars have used text narratives as one category (Dalim and Mubarrak, 2013; Mergo, 2012; Engida, 2005). These all have nicely illustrated graphics and images, along with internet links to supplemental content. Educational Equity? Introduction . One stop resource to a deep understanding of important concepts in physics This Math quiz is called 'Measurement - The Metric System - An Introduction' and it has been written by teachers to help you if you are studying the subject at middle school. We keep the library up-to-date, so you may … However, lots of improvements are taking place in fulfilling facilities and the textbooks should be revised to full fill the demand of the day. The different categories of grade 7 and 8 physics textbooks such as learning objectives, activities, figures and diagrams, text narratives, unit summaries, and end-of-unit exercises were sampled. In the above formula, lists a, b, c, and d are related to passive student learning whereas lists e, f, g, and h are considered as active student learning. College Physics (7th Edition) Wilson, Jerry D.; Buffa, Anthony J.; Lou, Bo Publisher Pearson ISBN 978-0-32160-183-4. Yimulaw, M. (2007). Online video/YouTube, 7th - High School | •Â Â The figures, diagrams, and other drawings presented in the textbooks were colorful that attract students for reading. The results revealed that learning objectives were stated in all the units in the textbooks. 3rd - 7th | Physics Syllabus, Grades 7 and 8. •Â Â Summaries at the end of the textbooks were found to repeat what has been written in the texts. Imagine you go to moon and weigh your body weight on weighing machine there. However, the learning objectives stated were not clearly written indicating the behavior expected of students after completing the units. Black-and-white drawings. The different aspects of textbooks such as learning objectives, texts, activities, figures and diagrams, summaries and end-of-unit exercises were sampled and rated with a sample sheet. Though students starting Conceptual Academy in the 8th grade should take a careful look at our Physical Science Explorations course. They had limitations in helping students learn ideas in a different approach. Teaching Physics with the physics suite. Textbooks should explain the learning objectives before the learning process takes place (Dalim and Mubarrak, 2013). Physics is defined as the study of the nature of matter, energy, and their interactions. The known physics educator Redish (2002) has also suggested that students going to study other sciences need to understand physics as part of their scientific education. Bahir Dar. The data obtained from the questionnaires used as additional information to give valuable suggestions for further improvement of textbooks under consideration. The following formula is used to calculate index of student involvement for figures and diagrams: Where a=figures and diagrams are used for illustrative purpose, b= figures and diagrams requiring students to analyze data or perform some activity. From the above 10 lists concerning text narratives, i and j have no any contribution to the analysis of text narratives in the textbooks and can be eliminated from the calculation. The following formula is used to calculate the index of student involvement Is for summaries at the end of units: Where a=summaries that repeat the conclusions of the unit and summarizes the same idea from the texts. These values are not closer to the ideal and balanced value which is 1.00. In other words, all the aspects of the textbooks should help students construct their own learning and transform it to new situations in favor of mere mathematical calculations and repetitions of previous learning. Consequently, the present study was designed to analyze the different aspects of grade 7 and 8 physics textbooks such as learning objectives, text narratives, figures and diagrams, activities, exercises at the end of the units, and summaries. Retrieved on Tuesday, December 03, 2013 from http://www.unesco.org/webworld/ramp/html/r8810e/r8810e04.htm. The next important aspect of textbook is summaries at the end of units or chapters. In addition, open-ended questionnaires … INTRODUCTORY 10 MINUTESSESSION 1 ACTIVITY REVIEW: Defining Physical Fitness Physical fitness is “a set of abilities that one possesses in order to perform physical activities. On the other hand, the different aspects of the textbooks such as learning objectives, text narratives, activities, unit summaries, figures and diagrams, and exercises at the end of units were sampled by applying stratified random sampling technique. When learning objectives are clearly stated, they give insight to appropriate choice to other components of instruction. Physics is one of the natural science subjects given as a linear subject starting from grade 7 to 12 in Ethiopian schools. London: John Wiley and Sons. Then, we’ll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts... Basher Science: Physics, Why Matter Matters! Learning will be facilitated when the lesson is presented in the visual form using figures, diagrams, pictures, graphs, illustrations, and photographs (Yimulaw, 2007). Alter each machine. Furthermore, open-ended questionnaires for students and their physics teachers were used to collect data to be used to triangulate the data obtained by rating different aspects of the textbooks. "Analysis of Grades 7 and 8 Physics Textbooks: A Quantitative Approach.". The way of stating the learning objectives seemed to give weak emphasis that the objectives have to the rest of the components of instruction. Bhatti, A. N. and Hashmi, A. M. (n.d). More emphasis is given for illustrative purpose and introducing materials, known individuals and physicist, and equipments. Analysis of Grades 7 and 8 Physics Textbooks: A Quantitative Approach. … The summaries were found to be weak in raising new questions and current research issues in science and technology. Top-notch introduction to physics. Bloomâs taxonomy, the analysis of conceptual development, analysis of the inquiry level of textbooks, quantitative analysis of different aspects of textbooks, etc are some of the techniques to analyze textbooks (Engida, 2005). In this curriculum framework, it is clearly indicated that it is the learner-centered approaches and the constructivist epistemology that the teaching-learning process should follow. To analyze the learning objectives, distribution of objectives in the textbooks can be seen. 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