Included studies focused on the executive and legislative branches with no studies examining the judicial branch. Health Aff (Millwood). Ideology of external advisors and brokers (as discussed above) and policymakers’ own personal beliefs and experiences  and the prevailing political ideology of a particular geographic region  are critical components of context. State legislators’ sources and use of information: bridging the gap between research and policy. Other channels include conferences and presentations (n = 4) [33, 34, 49, 57], electronic communication (n = 2) [27, 57], online resources (n = 3) [34, 49, 58], and personal testimony (n =2) [42, 52]. For example, we would not include a research study that only describes different types of policy briefs, without also evaluating how the briefs are used by policymakers to inform policy decisions. This shift creates an opportunity to optimize the content of print materials to disseminate in new mediums; it also offers a chance for authors to improve the accessibility of their work for broader audiences (e.g., via more visual presentation formats) [15, 69,70,71]. Child Welfare. Aust N Z Health Policy CSIRO. This article discusses the issues associated with disseminating research findings in nursing. While there may be fewer decision-makers for each issue on the state level, policymaking is further complicated by the extensive rules and reporting requirements attached to state use of federal funding as well as competing priorities or needs at the local level within each state [83, 84]. Both studies found that external brokers played a role in connecting SEA policymakers to relevant research, as well as in the conceptualization and development of policy. Effective dissemination of research to US policymakers exists; yet, rigorous quantitative evaluation is rare. Both traditional (n = 6) [31, 33, 47, 52,53,54] and social media (n = 2) [47, 53] were examined as channels to disseminate research to policymakers. References. Creative methods of research dissemination. Disease Research, Bangladesh (Icddr,b) and the TRAction project in Dhaka and the Dodowa Health Research Center of the Ghana Health Services as well as Ayishatu Gibrin and Najoua Kachouri for their contributions in organising the pilot workshops. Six of included studies (about 22%) examined multiple levels of government and did not separate results based on specific levels of government [27,28,29,30,31, 53]. Coffman JM, Hong M-K, Aubry WM, Luft HS, Yelin E. Translating medical effectiveness research into policy: lessons from the California health benefits review program. 2014;11:377–87. Shelley D, Ogedegbe G, Elbel B. (2015). Arena, M., Azzone, G., & Bengo, I. Bogenschneider K, Corbett TJ. Studies were excluded if they were not in English or occurred outside of the United States. The purpose of the Model for Dissemination of Research is to highlight the gaps between research and targets audiences (e.g., policymakers) and improve dissemination through the use of a theoretical foundation and review of the literature . Research has the potential to influence US social policy; however, existing research in this area lacks a coherent message. Engaging policymakers early as contributing members of the research team, maintaining communication during the research process, and presenting relevant findings in a clear, concise manner may empower both researchers and policymakers to further apply scientific evidence to improve social policy in the United States. A Strong New Haven is a Healthy New Haven. Dissemination of research findings or other key messages is increasingly acknowledged as a vital yet complex process. Health Aff. These findings suggest that targeted, audience-specific research evidence materials may be more likely to be used by policymakers than generic research evidence. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Toward a research agenda for understanding and improving the use of research evidence. Bristol: Policy Press; 2019. p. 351–68. Polit Policy. Acad Pediatr. Weaver W, Shannon CE. dissemination of research. Implementation Science TY - THES. Review methodology: LEA, DAQ, RCB; eligibility criteria: LEA, DAQ, RCB; search strings and terms: LEA, DAQ; abstract screening: LEA, DAQ; full text screening: LEA, DAQ; pilot extraction: LEA, DAQ; data extraction: LEA, DAQ; data aggregation: LEA, DAQ; writing: LEA, DAQ; editing: LEA, DAQ, RCB. J Crim Just. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data. What Works Evid-Inf Policy Pract. Polit Res Q. Available from: https://www.nihr.ac.uk/explore-nihr/funding-programmes/policy-research.htm. 2020 Feb 3;20(1):81. doi: 10.1186/s12913-020-4935-y. Nelson SR, Leffler JC, Hansen BA. Systems thinking, knowledge and action: towards better models and methods. CARE: Community Alliance for Research and Engagement. Fam Foster Care Century. Originally published by Brownson et al. Strategies for effective dissemination of research to United States policymakers: a systematic review Laura Ellen Ashcraft1*, Deirdre A. Quinn2 and Ross C. Brownson3,4 Abstract Background: Research has the potential to influence US social policy; however, existing research in this area lacks a … Ideological beliefs, often deeply held and personal, may create a barrier between researchers and policymakers , though differentiating ideology from other factors that affect individual position-taking is difficult in most situations . Owen JW, Larson AM. There was variation in dissemination channels by level of government (e.g., a more formal legislative process at the federal level compared with other levesl). Brokering research in science education policy implementation: the case of a professional association. 2019;97:1200–32. PubMed Researcher-policymaker partnerships: Strategies for launching and sustaining successful collaborations: Routledge; 2017. Fifth, the majority of studies did not use any theory or framework as a foundation or guide for exploration. Partnership and the politics of care: advocates’ role in passing and implementing California’s law to extend foster care: Chapin Hall Center for Children; 2012. PubMed Central Studies remaining after abstract screening moved to full text review. However, shifting political agendas in the 1980s saw the demand for evidence increase to provide support for social programs ; we hoped to capture this increase in evidence use in policy. Our findings provide leads on how to more effectively to engage with policymakers, leading to a greater likelihood of translating research evidence into policy action. The difference between the number of implementation strategies and dissemination strategies is striking and highlights the gap in research. A shared feature of these strategies is the distillation of complex research findings into accessible pieces of relevant information that can then be delivered via multiple avenues. Considering the multiple pathways through which research evidence is used in policy, from providing direct evidence of a program’s effectiveness to informing or orienting policy makers about relevant issues , these shared lessons around barriers and facilitators may better inform researchers, policymakers, and staff as to best practices for future communication and collaboration. The funding entities had no role in the development, data collection, analysis, reporting, or publication of this work. Article processing charges for this article were fully paid by the University Library System, University of Pittsburgh. Int J Drug Policy. Global Research Dissemination and Utilization: Recommendations for Nurses and Nurse Educators. CAS 7(1), 1997, 53-67. We identified a series of cross-cutting dissemination strategies for engaging policymakers including recommendations for and barriers to research-to-policy (see Table 2). McBride T, Coburn A, MacKinney C, Mueller K, Slifkin R, Wakefield M. Bridging health research and policy: effective dissemination strategies. Key Points The goals for dissemination of evidence-based practice include the ability to Strategies for effective dissemination of research to United States policymakers: a systematic review Laura Ellen Ashcraft1*, Deirdre A. Quinn2 and Ross C. Brownson3,4 Abstract Background: Research has the potential to influence US social policy; however, existing research in this area lacks a … Policy Stud. HHS 2009;19:519–30. CARE is supported in part by the Clinical and Translational Science Award UL1 RR024139, National Center for Research Resources, J Health Polit Policy Law. State and Local Expenditures [Internet]. This finding is surprising in our current digital age, as print materials are necessarily time-bound and rapidly evolving technology has created more channels (e.g., social media, videos) which may be preferred by policymakers.  found that while all styles of brief were considered understandable and credible, opinions on the usefulness of the brief varied by the style of the brief and by the level of policymaker (e.g., legislative staff, legislators, and executive branch administrators). 1977;71:1026–43. Our review of the literature also identified nine quantitative and mixed-methods studies [31, 32, 38, 39, 42,43,44, 49, 58]. Sorian R, Baugh T. Power of information: closing the gap between research and policy. Campbell DM, Redman S, Rychentnik L, Cooke M, Zwi AB, Jorm L. Increasing the use of evidence in health policy: practice and views of policy makers and researchers. 2018; appi.ps.201800153. Sorian R, Baugh T. Power of information: closing the gap between research and policy. As Horizon 2020 is financed by EU citizens, it should benefit to the largest number and the fruits of the research reach society as a whole. Research findings and strategies to intervene at each level in mental health settings were recently reviewed and found that to date, the most research has been done to test theories and implementation strategies at the levels of the inner context and characteristics of the individual. Two studies specifically addressed the role of intermediary organizations or brokers in the translation of research evidence to policy. Urban Institute. Grand Forks, ND: Rural Health Research and Policy Centers. Orton L, Lloyd-Williams F, Taylor-Robinson D, O’Flaherty M, Capewell S. The use of research evidence in public health decision making processes: systematic review. The publication and dissemination of research can sometimes have unintended consequences on individuals and communities. 2017;25:9–14. Several examples across western countries contribute to a stronger nexus between research evidence and the policy-making process. Google Scholar. Implement Sci. 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 26]. The Model for Dissemination of Research integrates Diffusion of Innovations Theory, the Mathematical Theory of Communication, and Social Marketing Theory to develop a framework for conceptualizing how information moves from source to audience. 2012;7:2. Available from: https://www.britannica.com/topic/political-party. 2015;349:g7647. T1 - Strategies in the production and dissemination of knowledge. Hennink M, Stephenson R. Using research to inform health policy: barriers and strategies in developing countries. PubMed Dissemination partners—Individuals, organizations or networks through whom you can reach end users? Studies which focused on the legislative branch examined legislators (n = 12) [27, 32, 36, 38, 44,45,46,47, 50, 52, 53, 58] and staff (n = 3) [32, 34, 36]. The peer-reviewed and grey literature was systematically reviewed to understand common strategies for disseminating social policy research to policymakers in the United States. Global Research Dissemination and Utilization: Recommendations for Nurses and Nurse Educators. 38 46 Dissemination and implementation models are essential for understanding and improving D&I processes and outcomes; they help to align research questions with appropriate … The populated conceptual model builds on the Model for Dissemination of Research by organizing findings from the current systematic review to build an understanding of how research is disseminated to policymakers in the United States. Epub 2017 Nov 20.  explored the exchange of research evidence among state education agency (SEA) leaders, while Massell et al. The search was performed in February 2016 in PubMed, Ebsco/PsycINFO, Ebsco/CINAHL and Embase. Ashcraft, L.E., Quinn, D.A. Create a dissemination strategy at the beginning of the research process with key stakeholders. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change. 2016;43:569–78. Evid Policy. Ashcraft LE, Asato M, Houtrow AJ, Kavalieratos D, Miller E, Ray KN. Such participative activities can be as creative as you wish; for example, through games, such as Foldit for protein folding ( https://fold.it/portal/ ). A common strategy for garnering support (as recommended above) is the use of evidence champions or brokers; these are intermediary individuals or organizations who connect research suppliers (e.g., individual researchers, academic institutions) to research demand (e.g., policymakers) . Dissemination of health-related research among scientists in three countries: access to resources and current practices. In the United States, there is more likely to be a “winner-take-all” process where some advocates (often corporations and trade associations) have disproportionate influence . We expanded the inquiry for evidence by searching the grey literature through PolicyFile, and included recommendations from experts in the field of dissemination of research evidence to policymakers resulting in 137 recommended publications. PCORI, AHRQ, etc.) Further research on the effectiveness of these strategies as well as the barriers and facilitators of implementing these methods is required. In an effort to increase ease and efficiency, this document provides key strategies for dissemination, including practical advice and specific templates you can adapt for your use. Research may also play a role in shaping policy and has the potential to add objectivity and evidence to these other forces [1, 2, 68]. A wide range of contextual variables may influence policy dissemination in the US at different levels of government. 2001;13. PY - 2008/9/26. dissemination and utilization of research results. Weissman JS, Westrich K, Hargraves JL, Pearson SD, Dubois R, Emond S, et al. We examined dissemination based on geographic regions and/or political boundaries (i.e., regions or states). Med Care Res Rev. Tabak RG, Reis RS, Wilson P, Brownson RC. Dissemination and the evaluation of the dissemination strategies utilized can also provide a better understanding of the barriers to dissemination and lead to greater utilization of the most effective dissemination strategies in future research projects. Best A, Holmes B. Social Policy: History (1950–1980). One study did not specifically identify the level of government used . Implement Sci. J Public Health Manag Pract. 3). A recent review of health policy implementation measurement found that validated quantitative measures are underutilized and recommends further development and testing of such measures . The audience included executive branch policymakers , administrators (n = 9) [27, 31, 38, 39, 41, 43, 53, 55, 57], and staff . Further research is required to: develop and validate a coherent theoretical framework of health professional and organisational behaviour and behaviour change to inform better the choice of interventions in research and service settings, and to estimate the efficiency of dissemination and implementation strategies in the presence of different barriers and effect modifiers. Five studies (about 18.5%) examined dissemination at the federal level [32,33,34,35,36]. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Findings from this work suggest that dissemination is most effective when it starts early, galvanizes support, uses champions and brokers, considers contextual factors, is timely, relevant, and accessible, and knows the players and process. Stamatakis KA, McBride TD, Brownson RC. Available from: https://www.politico.eu/article/why-lobbying-in-america-is-different/. McVay AB, Stamatakis KA, Jacobs JA, Tabak RG, Brownson RC. A systematic review of barriers to and facilitators of the use of evidence by policymakers. 2019;76:478–96. 2009;117:495–9. Milbank Q. This system creates major variation across the country in both policy decisions and in resource availability for social policy implementation. To research-to-policy ( see Fig, Maltby E. the role of researchers in disseminating evidence to public health management practice! That the research process as one-on-one meetings [ 44 ] institutional affiliations research resources, political and... 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