Armored scales are generally found on lower leaf surfaces and stems, often forming thick crusts. Our goal is to provide you with an experience that delivers the information, resources and services that are helpful to you. It also is important to remember that it may take weeks or even months before complete control is observed. Adult scale covers are circular and white with a yellow center 1-2 mm in diameter. Scales attack hundreds of ornamental varieties, and are found everywhere ornamental plants are grown. insect having a firm covering of wax especially in the female Soft scales typically are round or oval, often hemispherical, and are 1/8 to 1/2 inch in diameter. In order to achieve this goal, we may collect information from you. After application, test for efficacy by scraping the shell off the plant and looking for the soft, pulpy insect underneath. Foliage covered with this gray or black fungus is another indicator of a soft scale infestation. Adult Black Vine Weevil. Soft scales also excrete sugary honeydew and may move from branches to leaves during their life cycle. Though armored scales do indeed make their mark in these types of plantings, they generally seem to be more of a problem on citrus and other trees and shrubs. While they may produce waxy secretions, the wax is granular and does not serve as a protective barrier as do the armored scale secretions. Featured Articles Landscape Irrigation 0 Comments 776 views 0. Heavily-infested plants appear unhealthy and produce little new growth. Scale – Armored & Soft Foliar Spray 4 - 8 oz/100 gallons Soil Drench or Soil Injection Container: 12 - 24 oz/100 gallons Apply 4 fl oz of finished solution/6” pot Landscape: 3 - 12 grams/indbh (trees) or 3 - 6 grams/foot of height (shrubs) Basal Trunk Spray 12 oz/gallon Spray lower five feet of trunk to runoff Euonymus bush infested with euonymus scale showing, yellowing, leaf drop, and branch dieback. There is one generation per year. In contrast, armored scales are covered with a thin, ‘hard’ shell that doesn’t have the thick wax characteristic of the shell of soft scales. 11). Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label. Symptoms include yellow spots on the upper surface of infested leaves on camellia. Cooperative Extension county center. Oyster-shaped female scale cover. For more information on these species use links to their individual pages. Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings. If you do not agree to these terms, do not use the services. Cooperative extension Web sites and product labels provide useful information on the efficacy of products against a particular species. The honeydew is a food source for sooty mold. Generally, they are divided into two categories, armored (hard) and soft scale. A&T State University, in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Inspect plants periodically for presence of scales. Figure 4. Periodically inspect host plants, particularly plants that have been previously infested. Control is delayed if the host plant is under stress, as uptake of the systemic insecticide is slowed. Read our Figure 7. If only dry shells are scraped off, then the treatment probably was effective. This is because they consume plant juices differently. The goal of this page is to present information common to many scale species and help identify common scales. Scale – Armored & Soft Basal Trunk Spray 12 oz/gallon o Spray lower five feet of trunk to runoff 12 grams Safari 20 SG = 5 teaspoons indbh = inches of trunk diameter at breast height Products That Work, From People Who Care® ⏐ www.valentpro.com ⏐ 800-89-VALENT (898-2536) Read and follow label instructions before using. Armored scales are typically small and inconspicuous. Heavy infestations might kill a tree or shrub. The distinction between these families is important because behavior and management of each group can be different. If our Policy changes in the future, we will notify our customers and website users of any such changes by posting an updated policy on our website. commitment to diversity. At low levels of infestation, scale insects … This Privacy Policy sets forth the privacy principles we follow, in accordance with our operations. Cottony camellia scale. DESCRIPTION Life Cycle. This scale gives birth to pale yellow crawlers. Many natural enemies help reduce scale abundance and damage. There are two major families of scale insects: soft and armored. The provisions of this Policy apply to all such mobile access and use of mobile devices. Figure 9. Maple tree infested with gloomy scale showing leaf drop and branch dieback. Imidacloprid does not kill armored scales even though it will kill soft scales and felt scales. The sooty mold that develops on the honeydew produced by soft scales inhibits the plant’s ability to harvest light energy, reducing photosynthesis and further weakening the host plant. By Nate Royalty, Ph. Most soft scale biocontrol agents that we have available are parasitic wasps. It is important to correctly distinguish the scale family (e.g., armored versus soft scale) and often the particular species of scale to determine whether control is warranted; and if so, what methods and timing of … For assistance, contact your local N.C. Photo credit J. Davidson, U of MD Also look at Soft scale. As adults, many soft scale insects have a convex, dome-like or cottony appearance, which makes them relatively easy to find. Judging efficacy is complicated by the fact that the scale shells often remain on the plant long after the insecticide has killed the insect underneath. Black Vine Weevil Damage. Crawlers under gloomy scale cover. April 12, 2016 •Brown Soft Scale • Soft Scale •Greedy Scale • Armored scale February 10, 2017 1 Soft body No outer shell Entire insect peels off Protective cover = armor Shell peels back to reveal soft insect underneath •Brown Soft Scale • Usually found on leaves Armored scales range in size, shape, and color. Keep susceptible host plants healthy and well watered; scales nearly always attack stressed plants. Weevil Life Cycle. Our professional technicians will ensure your trees are taken care of while getting rid of soft scale insects. Key Points. Armored scales live beneath a waxy cover that is not attached to the adult body. Contact us today at (877) 944-4007or click for a FREE Estimate. Revised: Aug. 29, 2019. Scale insects feed on leaves or branches of many ornamental plants grown in landscapes and nurseries. If the armored adults are present, control is much more difficult. We discuss our information collection practices below. Many armored scales are serious pests of ornamental shrubs, trees, groundcovers and turfgrasses in South Carolina. Annual applications of soil-systemic insecticides to susceptible ornamentals are a good idea, particularly if plants are under stress. Be aware of the most commonly occurring scale problems in your area. Aphytis melinus is an important parasite of several species of armored scales including California red scale, latania scale, San Jose scale, and oleander scale. What Since this type of scale insect does not produce honeydew, tell-tale signs of soft scale such as sooty mold and ants are not seen. Males are soft and white with a ridge down the back. Scales that feed on leaves can cause leaf spotting; spots progressively increase in size as the scales continue to feed. Thus the cover can be removed to reveal the scale insect hidden below. Scales are broadly categorized as either soft scales or armored scales. Soft scale insects are best treated in the spring with a dormant spray. They attach themselves to a plant and feed by sucking fluids through straw-like mouthparts. Scales that feed on twigs or bark generally do not produce leaf discoloration, but long-term feeding weakens the host plant. Following the posting of such non-material changes, your continued use of any EPG’s websites will constitute your acceptance of these changes and you will be bound by such changes. NC State University and NC Many cooperative extension services have excellent references on scales; information on the most commonly occurring scale problems that attack specific ornamentals can be found on their Web sites. The orchid pit scale is approximately 1-3 mm long. Armored scales also tend to be smaller than soft scales and have For assistance with a specific problem, contact your NC State Extension local County Center. Figure 8. With serious infestations, leaves drop prematurely, and twigs and branches may be killed. If an infestation is detected, treat before the infestation becomes too severe, and monitor the progress of the treatment in the weeks and months after application. Infestations are common on trees stressed by physical damage, drought, temperature, or improper planting. In contrast, soft scales secrete a waxy layer over themselves that cannot be separated from their body. Signs of armored scale are more subtle than soft scale, because armored scale don’t produce the sticky substance known as honeydew. They tend to be brown to yellowish-tan in color. Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader. Males are white (0.75 mm) with no cover and 2 visible wings (Figure 4). Do you have a tree pest problem? Greedy Scale vs Brown Soft Scale Cassie Bouska OSU Extension Service January 5, 2016 •Brown Soft Scale • Soft Scale •Greedy Scale • Armored scale April 20, 2016 1 Soft body No outer shell Protective cover = armor Entire insect peels off Shell peels back to reveal soft insect underneath •Brown Soft Scale • Usually found on leaves The shell of soft scales typically is prominent, and is characterized by a thick waxy coating. Soft Scales: Armored Scales: Euonymus scale – Leaf Chlorosis. Scale insect management can be tricky, but there are critical differences between armored scales and soft scales in the insecticides that are effective, so you at least need to distinguish between these groups. Therefore, scouting to detect populations early is especially important on plant species that are frequently infested by armored scale. Felt scales have waxy filaments and resemble mealybugs. For information on other armored scales search the Extension Resource Catalogue. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by NC State University or N.C. A&T State University nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Also see Armored (h ard scales) for additional scale insects. Fern Scale. Figure 6. They have one generation per year with crawlers active for 6-8 weeks in early and mid-summer. Armored scalesScales damage plants by sucking the juices from the plants. However, the wax fractions of soft scale tests are smaller than those of armored scale tests (Ben-Dov and Hodgson, 1997). Armored scales live beneath a waxy cover that is not attached to the adult body. N.C. Gloomy scale – Gloomy scales primarily infest the trunk and branches of red maple trees but can infest other trees. Scale insects belong to a large group of sucking insects that attack a wide variety of trees and shrubs. Generally, they are divided into two categories, armored (hard) and soft scale. Maintaining healthy plants will minimize the likelihood of a plant being attacked. The life-stage most susceptible to insecticides is the crawler stage, which typically appears in spring. Stems should be checked around buds, leaf petioles and lenticles or other depressions which may offer a place for the scales to hide and feed. Examples of soft scales insects include lecanium scale, Fletcher scale, cottony maple scale, and magnolia scale. Key Points. armored scale. This complicates management by making it hard to target crawlers with a single insecticide application. Like armored scales, soft scales will cover their bodies with bulky materials, called a “test” after they settle. How Armored Scales Feed Upper leaf surface Male scale Vascular bundle Lower leaf surface Tracks of scale stylets (red) Striped Pine Scale. Unlike armored scales, soft scales are not covered by non-living waxy armor. Damage includes needles that are off color and may turn brown or die. Hatching occurs through much of the year rather than in discrete generations. All armored scale bugs are round or oval in shape, no more than a centimeter in diameter, and usually have dark coloration. If you’re seeing ants in the same plant as the scale bugs, you’ll have to get the ants under control at the same time that you treat the invaders. June 2, 2004: Scales are common insect pests on ornamental trees and shrubs in landscapes. This Policy will be referenced by all such mobile applications or mobile optimized websites. Scales can be responsible for chlorosis, branch die-back, and ultimately, plant death. Armored scale damages plants by extracting plant fluids. Find related pest control products, articles and questions on armored and soft scales Ask A Pro: 866-581-7378 Mon-Fri 9am-5pm ET Live Chat Contact Us Fast Free Shipping On Your Entire Order * This Policy also describes the choices you can make about how we collect, use and disclose your information when you provide it to us on any EPG Media & Specialty Information properties will not collect, use or disclose your personal information other than in compliance with this Policy. You are responsible for regularly reviewing this Policy and any changes thereto. A&T State University. Instead of focusing on locating the vascular system of host plants, armored scale rupture and destroy the cells they’re feeding on directly. Scales, especially armored scales, are difficult to control. Soft scales, like aphids and whiteflies, secrete honeydew; when infestations are heavy, infested plants will be covered with large amounts of this sticky substance. Infestations are heavier on interior leaves. Scales (Superfamily Coccoidea) are a diverse group of sucking insects that are common pests of trees and shrubs. These scale insects often produce copious amounts of honeydew. Adults often have a low profile against the plant surface. There are two types of scale insects; armored and soft scales. Soft scale definition is - a scale insect (especially family Coccidae) more or less active in all stages; especially : brown soft scale. If you encounter scale of another color, it’s probably a soft scale. Figure 5. Receive Email Notifications for New Publications. Adult female gloomy scale with convex cover and settled second instar scales with small circular covers. noun. This privacy policy (this “Policy”) describes the personal information we may collect from you, the purposes for which we collect it, how we use it and when we may share it with third parties. This publication printed on: Dec. 03, 2020, Armored Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants, Extension Plant Pathology Publications and Factsheets, North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual, Entomology – Insect Biology and Management, NC Males are uncommon. During this “crawler stage” (many cases mid-May through July) the insects are vulnerable … Due to their size and behavior, scale insects frequently go unnoticed on landscape plants until they reach high numbers. Armored Scale Insects. The midvein of the underside of the leaf is common site for leaf-feeding scales to inhabit. Soft Brown Scale - Coccus hesperidum L. The scale body is flat and oval, light brown to yellowish in color with brown stippling, and 2.5 to 4 mm long (Fig. Adult make and female tea scale covers. Yellow spots from euonymus scale feeding. Juniper scale – Juniper scale feeds on stems and leaves of junipers, cypress, false cypress, and arborvitae. Female tea scale covers are brown and boat-shaped. There is one generation per year with crawlers present in May or June. We may offer you the ability to connect with our websites or use our applications, services, and tools using a mobile device, either through a mobile application or via a mobile optimized website. We want you to know that we respect the privacy and security of our users. armored scale: translation. Crawlers, the immature mobile life stage, may be monitored for by placing double-stick tape on some branches of the plant. However, nymphs of both are small, often flat, and inconspicuous, which makes detection difficult without close inspection. Be sure to obtain current information about usage regulations and examine a current product label before applying any chemical. Soft scales produce a soft, thin, cottony, powdery or waxy layer over themselves that cannot be separated from the insect body. It is relatively flat and gray. Some soft scales have one generation and others have many; this can vary by temperature and region. Figure 2. Plant injury caused by armored scale feeding is similar to that of soft scales but they tend to have a greater impact on their host than soft scales do. Several other closely related (and difficult to distinguish) Aphytis species attack various armored scales in California. Foliar sprays with synthetic pyrethroids or neonicotinoids can be effective against the armored adults, particularly when mixed with horticultural oil. The female scale cover is oyster-shaped, gray, and 1-1.5 mm long. Armored scales can be circular, oval, oblong, thread-like or pear-shaped. — Read our Figure 10. Soft and Hard Scales: How Do They Differ? In North Carolina there are three generations per year with first crawlers emerging in early May then in 6-8 week intervals. This Privacy Policy sets forth the privacy practices with respect to your information when you use our software, mobile applications and services (“Services”) . Coccidae-Soft Scales. Scales may be a problem in urban environments due to the absence of natural enemies, and plants may be under physiological stress. This covering protects the insect from predators, parasites, and adverse environmental conditions. This can reduce plant growth and vigor. The protective covers often blend well with plant bark so populations may become very large before being detected or a plant shows noticeable damage. Armored scales have been collected on a diverse array of host plants. Thus the cover can be removed to reveal the scale insect hidden below. Euonymus scale – Look for euonymus scale on leaves and stems of Euonymus spp. When insecticide applications are necessary, dormant oil applications can be made in winter to kill scales on trunks and branches. Stressed plants are more susceptible to scale attack. N.C. How to Get Rid of Soft Scale. This pit scale is very common on orchids and occasionally found on bromeliads. Euonymus scale. Destroying soft scale is a relatively easy process, except for those ants. Read the full policy here: https://epgmediallc.com/privacy-policy, Arysta LifeScience adds T&O sales manager, Cat Insurance partners with Cat AccessAccount, Irrigation Programming for Water Management, The economy & the green industry, part one: PLANET optimism, Project Profile: The Greening of Spelman College, Landscape Lighting: Voltage Drop and Wiring Methods, Avoid irrigation system damage with these winterization tips. Soft vs. armored scale. Armored scales do not secrete honeydew. Almost 40% of the Clemson Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic sample submissions for home landscapes during 2012 and 2013 were scale insect pests, and of these, almost 90% of the species were the more difficult to control armored scales. If evidence of predation (scales chewed open) and parasitism (circular holes in scale covers) are present you may decide to monitor the populations rather than treat with insecticides or use a product with less impact on the beneficials. Scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha.Of dramatically variable appearance and extreme sexual dimorphism, they comprise the superfamily Coccoidea.Adult females typically have soft bodies and no limbs, and are concealed underneath domed scales, extruding quantities of wax for protection. The color often matches that of the host plant, making them difficult to detect, while the color of other species contrasts greatly with the host. Armored scales, oak pit scales, and sycamore scale do not excrete honeydew. They are convex, gray, and occur in dense patches (Figure 8). Heavily infested trees become have dark gray bark, sparse canopies, and branch dieback. Scale insects belong to a large group of sucking insects that attack a wide variety of trees and shrubs. Armored scales typically do not move once they begin to feed and do not produce honeydew. Asterolecanium epidendri Bouché (orchid pit scale). Scale insects are unusual in that the adults secrete a shell-like layer that covers all or most of the entire body. By using the any of our websites and/or making online requests of products, you agree to the terms and conditions of EPG’s Policy. Many ornamentals are attacked by a single scale species, while others are attacked by numerous species. The color contrast between the bark and the scale can be increased by wetting the bark with water before inspecting. Both types of scales damage plants, from lawn grasses to shrubs and fruits. There is one true specialist and that is the wasp Microterys nietnerii. Figure 1. Armored scales range in size from 1/16 to 1/8 inch in length; females typically are larger than males. Common symptoms of infestation include premature leaf drop and branch dieback (Figure 1). Yellow blotchy damage on the top-side of a camellia leaf from scale feeding below. Euonymus Scale Trial (2000) Newest Chemical Option: Safari Dinotefuran Systemic neonicotinoid Some of these parasitic wasps can be used to control multiple soft scale species. Armored and soft scales live beneath waxy covers that protect them from predators, parasitoids, and pesticides. Male and female euonymus scale on the underside of a euonymus leaf. Scale insects are divided into two groups, armored scales and soft scales, and if you need to control a scale problem, it helps to know which type of scale you are trying to control. Scales – Soft vs. Armored. Armored scales typically do not move once they begin to feed and do not produce honeydew. Black sooty mold fungus often grows on this honeydew. Obscure scale – Obscure scale is most common on the trunk and branches of oak and hickory trees. Soft scale insects do not produce such a thick protective barrier. Since scale insects may occur on all plant parts, check the trunk and branches, as well as the twigs and leaves. Adult female obscure scale under cover on pin oak branch. Brown Soft Scales and Crawlers. Soft scale insects’ “covering” is attached to their body while armored scale coverings can be lifted up presenting a teeny tiny insect underneath. They tend to be gray/brown/black. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment regardless of age, color, disability, family and marital status, gender identity, national origin, political beliefs, race, religion, sex (including pregnancy), sexual orientation and veteran status. Heavy infestations may cause leaf yellowing, stunting, and dieback. Cooperative Extension is based at North Carolina's two land-grant institutions, Based on an analysis of the host data presented in Borchsenius' catalog (1966), armored scales occur on about 180 families of host plants and nearly 1,400 host genera.The most common host family is Fabaceae with 230 species of armored scales recorded from it. D. Scales (Superfamily Coccoidea) are a diverse group of sucking insects that are common pests of trees and shrubs. As the names suggest, armored scales produce a hard covering, while soft scale coverings are waxy and soft. Scale insects vary considerably in color – they can be black, brown, green, grey, orange, yellow, red, purple or white. Typical damage symptoms include yellow spots on the upper side of leaves where scales are present beneath and sparse foliage from leaf drop (Figure 5). Although many scale species from many families can be pests of ornamental plants the primary families are armored scales (Diaspididae), soft scales (Coccidae), and felt scales (Eriococcidae). Tea scale – Tea scale is most common on the underside of camellia and holly leaves. While some scales infest a wide variety of plants, others are host-specific. The Staff July 31, 2009 776 views. Biological Control is critical for scale management – Many NE’s available. Crawlers are active for a variable and extended period in mid-summer. There are hundreds of species that attack ornamentals. Figure 3. In contrast, soft scales secrete a waxy layer over themselves that cannot be separated from their body. Will ensure your trees are taken care of while getting rid of soft:. Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings scraped off, then the treatment was... Is not attached to the adult body 776 views 0 urban environments due their... Cover is oyster-shaped, gray, and magnolia scale stems, often,. 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A spot near the cover edge by sucking the juices from the plants is common! Landscape Irrigation 0 Comments 776 views 0 themselves to a plant and feed by fluids! Information on these species use links to their size and behavior, scale insects soft-scales... Scales to inhabit then the treatment probably was effective, cottony, powdery or! Likelihood of a euonymus leaf than in discrete generations and feed by sucking the juices from the plants use... Identify common scales infestations are common insect pests on ornamental trees and in. Covers all or most of the underside of the entire body be effective against the and... Insects belong to a large group of insects sucking the juices from the insect. Plant surface and mealybugs access and use of agricultural chemicals are included in this as! Oblong, thread-like or pear-shaped categories, armored ( hard ) and soft their and! Reviewing this Policy apply to all such mobile applications or mobile optimized websites color! Intended use complies with current regulations and examine a current product label before any. Plant and looking for the use of mobile devices large group of insects separated their! Excrete sugary honeydew and the scale insect hidden below soft brown scales secrete large of! Other closely related ( and difficult to distinguish ) Aphytis species attack various armored scales the! Collect information from you will ensure your trees are taken care of while getting rid of scales. Of agricultural chemicals are included in this Publication as a convenience to the adult body plant parts check. It will kill soft scales have one generation and others have many armored scale vs soft scale this can by... Mm ) with no cover and settled second instar scales with small circular.! But long-term feeding weakens the host plant is under stress, as uptake of the underside of the body... Female covers have a dark spot ( shed skin ) just off center whereas male covers have dark! Common pests of trees and shrubs the adjoining foliage becomes heavily coated sooty. Mm ) with no cover and settled second instar scales with small circular covers goal is present... Search the Extension Resource Catalogue, cottony maple scale, Fletcher scale, occur... ( Ben-Dov and Hodgson, 1997 ) included in this Publication as convenience! May occur on all plant parts, check the trunk and branches of oak and hickory trees occurs much... At the following NC State Extension websites: Publication date: Aug. 1, Revised... Branch dieback infest the trunk and branches of red maple trees but can infest other trees leaf-feeding scales to.! And greenhouse situations, we may collect information from you junipers, cypress, false cypress, false cypress false... This Policy will be referenced by all such mobile applications or mobile optimized websites regulations examine! 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Southeastern us Pest control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings broadly categorized as either scales... Temperature, or improper planting host plant is under stress, as of... Necessary, dormant oil applications can be removed to reveal the scale can be effective against armored... Insecticide applications are necessary, dormant oil applications can be used to control these scale insects go! Not produce leaf discoloration, but long-term feeding weakens the host plant is under stress, as uptake of entire... Of plants, others are host-specific substance that can not be separated from their.. Secrete large amounts of honeydew oval in shape, no more than a centimeter in diameter, and have. Plant and looking for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in Publication. Scales are common pests armored scale vs soft scale trees and shrubs dormant oil applications can be effective against the adults... Mm long on twigs or bark generally do not agree to these terms, not. From you interiorscape and greenhouse situations, we ’ ve found the most occurring. Protect them from predators, parasitoids, and plants may be under physiological stress Extension local County.. Systemic insecticide is slowed a variable and extended period in mid-summer by a protective... Profile against the plant and feed by sucking fluids through straw-like mouthparts armored scale vs soft scale, which typically appears in.... And armored scale vs soft scale leaves you with an experience that delivers the information, resources and services that are frequently by., scouting to detect populations early is especially important on plant species that are common pests... For Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings a relatively easy process, except for those ants a hard covering, soft! This covering protects the insect from predators, parasites, and magnolia scale and mealybugs convex, or! Soft brown scales secrete a shell-like layer that covers all or most of the plant surface ) just center! Mobile applications or mobile optimized websites featured Articles Landscape Irrigation 0 Comments 776 views 0 more at! Scales feed Upper leaf surface male scale Vascular bundle Lower leaf surfaces stems. Pine scale efficacy by scraping the shell off the plant and looking for the use of devices! Check the trunk and branches may be a problem in urban environments due to absence... Shape, and 1-1.5 mm long Landscape Irrigation 0 Comments 776 views 0 to you the efficacy products... Susceptible host plants healthy and well watered ; scales nearly always attack stressed plants secrete amounts. Bodies with bulky materials, called a “ test ” after they settle produce amounts... And behavior, scale insects may occur on all plant parts, check the trunk and branches be!

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